Dental Anesthesia Online, LTD. is a professional corporation providing online current and relevant continuing education in the field of dental anesthesiology.

The purpose of these presentations is to provide information only, rather than advice or opinion. Nothing in these presentations should be construed as setting a standard of care or practice, and in fact, some may contain “off-label” recommendations.

These presentations do not necessarily reflect the views of Dental Anesthesia Online, Ltd or companies that support educational programming on this site.

The information is not and should not be regarded as a complete analysis of any topic.

Licensed healthcare professionals accessing this information agree to assume full responsibility for the use of this information and hold harmless any third party, including, but not limited to the authors of each presentation, Dental Anesthesia Online, Ltd., or Robert C. Bosack, DDS (and any of his affiliated corporate entities) for any claim, loss, injury or damage arising from the use or dissemination of this information.

To the extent any examples are given, they are for illustrative purposes only, and any similarities to actual individuals, entities, places or situations is unintentional. Any references to any resource materials or other websites are for convenience only, and Robert C. Bosack, DDS disclaims any responsibility for the use and content of any information provided in those other referenced materials.

As each patient or scenario is different, presentations, at best, can offer only guidelines in anesthetic management.

Similarly, it is agreed and understood that patient responses are both unique and variable; it is the ultimate responsibility of the treating practitioner to determine drugs, doses, and administration techniques based upon their overall assessment and evaluation of each individual situation.

It is up to each participant to ascertain the relevance of the information presented herein and to the level of anesthetic practice that he/she is trained and most importantly licensed to perform or administer.

It should be understood that clinicians should be trained in and licensed to perform the anesthetic technique they have chosen and have all the facilities, age and size specific adjuncts to perform physiologic rescue for 1 level deeper than intended.

As new research and clinical experience continually broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy naturally follow, which can lead to changes in the recommendations, concepts and guidelines presented herein.

Practitioners are advised to continually seek confirmation of this material with other reputable sources and are advised to keep abreast of all current information as it becomes available.

By agreeing with this document, you understand, acknowledge, and agree that you are assuming the entire risk as to the quality, accuracy, performance, timeliness, adequacy, completeness, correctness, authenticity, security, and validity of any and all features and functions of this site, including, without limitation, all information, materials, and services made available via the website.

Last Updated January, 2023.


Dental Anesthesia Online is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider.

ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry. Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to the Commission for Continuing Education Provider Recognition at ADA.org/CERP.

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